Impact factor 0.97
Success:false, Exception: true, Message: null
  Print
Systematic review
No impact of fish oil supplements on bleeding risk: a systematic review




Katrine Munk Begtrup, Andreas Engel Krag & Anne-Mette Hvas



Centre for Haemophilia and Thrombosis, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark


PDF

Abstract

Introduction: Fish oil supplementation may inhibit platelet aggregation and can potentially increase the risk of bleeding. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplements on haemostasis and bleeding risk, and to provide recommendations on whether it is necessary to discontinue fish oil supplementation prior to surgery.

Methods: Studies were identified through PubMed and Embase searches and by reviewing the reference lists of the included papers. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Included in the review were publications including a minimum of 20 healthy subjects and studies on patients who were undergoing surgery and who had fish oil expos­ure.

Results: In total, 52 publications were included; 32 publications on healthy subjects and 20 publications on patients undergoing surgery. The majority of the included studies were randomised controlled trials or included a control group. Overall, fish oil supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Fish oil exposure in surgical patients did not increase bleeding or blood transfusions either during or after surgery.

Conclusion: Fish oil supplements reduced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. This biochemical effect was not reflected in increased bleeding risk during or after surgery evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Consequently, this systematic review does not support the need for discontinuation of fish oil supplements prior to surgery or other invasive procedures.

Since the 1980s, fish oil has been investigated extensively for its protective effect in cardiovascular disease. Fish oil is now the second most commonly used dietary supplement in Denmark [1]. 


Dyerberg & Bang were the first to show that the bleeding times in the population of Greenlandic Inuit were significantly prolonged compared with those of the Danish population [2]. They found that the platelet membranes of the Greenlandic Inuit were markedly enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; and they suggested that the Inuit’s diet explained the low rate of cardiovascular disease in this population [2]. Since then, the impact of fish oil on haemostasis has been a subject of extensive debate.


Fish oil contains a high amount of the polyunsatur­ated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). After ingestion, EPA substitutes arachidonic acid in the phospholipid layer of platelet cell membranes [3-5]. This EPA substitution reduces the level of plasma thromboxane B2 [5], which is a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 [5]. Thromboxane A2 induces platelet aggregation; hence, fish oil intake may inhibit platelet aggregation through reduced thromboxane A2 synthesis [5, 6]. However, fish oil supplementation may affect platelets beyond thromboxane synth­esis. A recent large randomised controlled trial (RCT) showed reduced coronary events in hypercholesterol­aemic patients supplemented with EPA daily, but adverse bleeding events were significantly increased in 
patients with EPA supplementation [7]. Hence, some clinicians have expressed concern about the potential impact of fish oil supplementation on increased bleeding risk during surgery or other invasive procedures [8, 9]. 


This systematic review investigated the impact of fish oil supplements on haemostasis in healthy subjects, and the risk of bleeding in patients undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures. In conclusion, the present review does not support the need for discontinuation of fish oil supplements prior to surgery. 






METHODS 


The present systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines [10]. The MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant publications on 22 June 2016. The search terms used in MEDLINE/PubMed were 
(“Fish Oils”[Mesh] AND (“Surgical Procedures, Operative”[Mesh] OR “Hemorrhage”[Mesh] OR “Hemostasis”[Mesh])). In Embase, the search terms were (‘fish oil’/exp AND (‘bleeding’/exp OR ‘blood clotting’/exp OR ‘hemostasis’/exp OR ‘thrombocyte function and characteristics’/exp OR ‘invasive procedure’/exp OR ‘surgery’/exp)). Manual searches in the reference lists identified additional publications. Filters were applied to each database search to omit studies fulfilling the following criteria: reviews, non-human studies, non-English-language publications and publication date before 1 January 1960. Publications were included if they were original studies of oral or intravenous fish oil supplementation evaluating biochemical data on primary haemostasis, secondary haemostasis or fibrinolysis; and/or included objective clinical data on bleeding in healthy subjects or patients undergoing surgery or invasive procedures. The exclusion criteria were: reviews, conference abstracts, letters/comments without original data, case reports including less than five subjects, animal experiments, in vitro experiments, studies on fish diet and not supplementation, and studies investigating synergistic effects of fish oil in combination with medicine and guidelines. After duplicates had been removed, 1,686 records were screened by title and abstract. In this screening process, reviews and non-English-language records not removed by filters were excluded manually. In the next step, 249 full-text records were assessed for eligibility. Figure 1 shows a flow chart outlining the screening and selection process. 


The included publications were divided into two groups: Studies on healthy subjects and studies including patients undergoing surgery or invasive procedures. After the screening and inclusion process, it was decided to include only publications on healthy subjects including at least 20 subjects. There was no lower limit on the number of patients in publications including patients 
undergoing surgery.



Fish oil supplementation prior to surgery does not increase bleeding risk. Photo: Niels Age Skovbo, Fokus Foto.

RESULTS 

Healthy subjects


Table 1 shows a summary of identified studies including at least 20 healthy individuals; in total 32 publications and 29 different study populations. 


Compared with controls or baseline values, nine out of 16 studies, which were covered in 12 publications, demonstrated a reduced platelet aggregation by at least one agonist, reduced platelet adhesion and/or reduced thromboxane B2 [11-22]. In contrast, eight studies showed no statistically significant change in platelet aggregation or P-selectin after fish oil intake [23-30], and Cottin et al reported no influence on platelet-monocyte-aggregation [31]. Four studies reported a statistically significant reduction in thromboxane B2 after fish oil intake [19, 32-34], whereas one study did not report a significant change [27]. Bleeding time was statistically significantly increased in three out of the six studies after intake of fish oil [24, 26, 35], whereas the three remaining studies reported no effect on bleeding time [17, 28, 36].


Reduced fibrinogen or reduced thrombin generation was demonstrated in three studies after intake of fish oil [19, 37, 38], whereas three studies reported no statistically significant reduction [17, 33, 39]. No studies found any effect of fish oil intake on coagulation factor VII [16, 17, 21, 29, 33, 39]. Only one study investigated vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and found no statistically significant change following a four-week intake of fish oil supplementation [38].


One RCT suggested an increased fibrinolysis indi­cated by increased tissue-plasminogen activator [40], whereas Schmidt et al reported a reduced fibrinolysis after fish oil intake [24]; moreover, an increased plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 activity was found in two studies [20, 39]. The remaining six studies investigating markers of fibrinolysis found no statistically significant changes after intake of fish oil, [16, 17, 19, 21, 34, 41].


In the study by Prisco et al [18], healthy patients were exposed to fish oil for four months. Platelet aggregation was still reduced one month after discontinuation of fish oil; two months after discontinuation, platelet aggregation had returned to the baseline level. In the study by Freese & Mutanen [17], platelet aggregation was reduced following four weeks of fish oil supplementation, and had returned to normal levels 12 weeks after discontinuation of fish oil.


Patients undergoing surgery or invasive procedures


The effect of fish oil on clinical bleeding and/or biochemical haemostatic markers in patients undergoing surgery was reported in 20 publications on 19 different study populations (Table 2). Clinical bleeding was measured quantitatively in 12 studies, which were covered in 13 publications [8, 9, 42-52], and another four studies evaluated bleeding qualitatively [53-56]. Biochemical markers of haemostasis were reported in 13 out of 19 studies.


Preoperative fish oil exposure


Intraoperative bleeding and haemostasis


Clinical bleeding during a surgical procedure was re­ported in seven studies including patients exposed to fish oil preoperatively [8, 9, 43, 47, 49, 51, 56]. None of the seven studies found significantly increased clinical bleeding during surgery when comparing the fish oil group with the control group. Paradoxically, the double-blinded RCT by Mozaffarian et al reported that patients who were exposed to fish oil preoperatively received significantly fewer red blood cell transfusions than the control group during open-heart surgery [49]. One study estimated bleeding qualitatively as the surgeon noticed no difference in intraoperative bleeding [56]; furthermore, no difference in post-operative haematocrit level was measured in the same study on coronary angio­plasty [56]. 


Post-operative bleeding and haemostasis 


Post-operative bleeding was evaluated in four studies following only preoperative fish oil exposure. The four studies were covered in five publications [9, 43-45, 48]. None of the studies reported increased post-operative bleeding after preoperative fish oil exposure. One double-blinded RCT on open-heart surgery reported significantly fewer post-operative red blood cell transfusions in patients with preoperative fish oil exposure compared with the control group [48]. 


Biochemical markers were measured after surgery in two of the studies with patients who had been exposed to fish oil preoperatively. These studies were covered by three publications [9, 44, 45]. In patients 
undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the haematocrit level and markers of secondary haemostasis and fibrinolysis were not different [44, 45]. A retrospective case-control study on posterior spinal arthrodesis showed no difference in haemoglobin levels after surgery between patients who had been exposed to fish oil and other who had not [9]. 


Pre- and post-operative fish oil exposure


Post-operative bleeding and haemostasis 


Five studies evaluated post-operative bleeding in patients who had been exposed to fish oil both before and after surgery [42, 47, 49, 51, 53]. None of the studies showed increased post-operative bleeding after fish oil exposure. Mozaffarian et al reported significantly fewer post-operative red blood cell transfusions in patients exposed to fish oil both pre- and post-operatively than in the control group, but no difference in chest tube output [49]. In the RCT by Sorensen et al, fish oil exposure did not increase post-operative bleeding, but haemoglobin was reduced immediately post-operatively in colorectal cancer patients [51]. Dehmer et al estimated bleeding qualitatively and found no difference in post-operative bleeding complications or bleeding time; however, the platelet count was reduced in the fish oil group [53]. 


Post-operative fish oil exposure


Post-operative bleeding and haemostasis 


Five studies evaluated post-operative bleeding in patients who had been exposed to fish oil in the post-op­erative period [46, 50, 52, 54, 55]. In the RCT by Heller et al, patients undergoing gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer surgery were exposed to fish oil supplementation from the first post-operative day [50], and no statistic­ally significant difference in post-operative bleeding or laboratory measurements was found [50]. The RCT by Eritsland et al included coronary artery bypass grafting patients and reported no bleeding episodes post-operatively in either group; however, the time of initiation of fish oil supplementation post-operatively was not indicated [46]. Furthermore, the study found no difference in bleeding time, fibrinogen and secondary haemostasis [46], but post-operative fish oil exposure increased PAI-1 antigen, indicating reduced fibrinolysis [46]. Two studies evaluated bleeding qualitatively and reported no differences in post-operative bleeding [54, 55]. Roulet et al included patients undergoing total oesophagectomy and found reduced platelet aggregation in the fish oil group, but no difference in bleeding time and prothrombin time [55]. Wang et al included patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery and reported significantly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time in the fish oil group, but no difference in platelet count and prothrombin [54]. In an RCT on mixed surgical patients, no difference in red blood cell transfusions post-operatively was found [52]. 


Three studies with post-operative fish oil exposure measured biochemical markers, but not clinical bleeding [57-59]. One study with coronary artery bypass grafting patients found no difference in fibrinogen [59], but did find increased fibrinolysis shown by reduced PAI-1 antigen following fish oil exposure [59]. Aiko et al included oesophageal cancer patients and found reduced D-dimer and increased platelet count, but no difference in markers of primary and secondary haemostasis or fibrinolysis [58]. Finally, Singer et al found no difference in platelet count, prothrombin time, or partial thromboplastin time in kidney transplantation patients [57]. 


DISCUSSION 


Fish oil supplementation reduced primary haemostasis in most studies including healthy subjects, but fish oil supplementation did not increase bleeding in patients undergoing surgery or invasive procedures. Overall, the influence of fish oil supplementation on secondary haemostasis was insignificant and contradictory, and only few studies included markers of fibrinolysis and no consistent impact of fish oil was demonstrated. 


Clinical bleeding was investigated in 16 studies including patients undergoing surgery, which were 
covered in 17 publications [8, 9, 42-46, 48-56]; the majority of these studies were RCTs [42, 44-49, 51-54, 56]. No increase in intra- or post-operative bleeding was reported in patients exposed to fish oil supplementation preoperatively and/or post-operatively compared with controls [8, 9, 42-48, 51-54, 56]. Paradoxically, two studies demonstrated a reduced need for intraoperative red blood cell transfusions among patients in the fish oil supplementation group [48, 49], and fish oil exposure was associated with significantly less operative bleeding in a meta-analysis on cardiac surgery [60]. Thus, it seems evident that fish oil supplementation did not increase the need for blood product transfusion. Our rationale for including studies measuring post-operative bleeding in patients with post-operative fish oil supplementation [46, 50, 52, 54, 55] was to investigate if fish oil induced clot degradation and caused post-operative haematomas. There was no evidence supporting that post-operative fish oil supplementation increased post-operative bleeding. Only one in four studies on surgery reported a prolonged bleeding time measured preoperatively after 28 days of fish oil exposure [43]. Notably, fish oil did not influence clinical bleeding in relation to surgery [43]. Bleeding time was measured in six studies including healthy subjects; three studies found a prolonged bleeding time, while the remaining three studies found no effect of fish oil on bleeding time. 


Due to the demonstrated effect of fish oil on platelets reported by Dyerberg & Bang [2], most studies obviously investigated primary haemostasis. In studies including healthy subjects, the majority found reduced platelet aggregation following fish oil intake [11-19, 21]. Paradoxically, one study on healthy subjects showed an increase in platelet microparticles following fish oil intake which suggested a prothrombotic state [61]. In studies including healthy subjects, four out of five studies investigating thromboxane B2 levels found that thromboxane B2 levels were reduced after fish oil expos­ure [19, 32-34]. Two studies showed that platelet aggregation was normalised two months [18] and 12 weeks [17] after discontinuation of fish oil. This suggests that primary haemostasis is affected by fish oil exposure beyond ten days, which is the average lifespan of platelets, after discontinuation. 


In contrast to studies on healthy subjects, studies on patients with cardiovascular disease taking fish oil supplements consistently showed no reduced primary haemostasis [6, 62-67]. This indicates that the platelets of these patients are less responsive to fish oil treatment, or that the effects of fish oil supplements on primary haemostasis were masked by concomitant antithrombotic medication. 


Secondary haemostasis was sparsely investigated. The theoretical rationale for investigating secondary haemostasis following fish oil exposure is the potential anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. Fish oil may reduce fibrinogen synthesis in the acute phase response [58]. The same pattern of no consistent effect on secondary haemostasis was found both in the studies including healthy subjects and in patients undergoing surgery. These results indicate that fish oil has no substantial systematic effect on secondary haemostasis. 


Fibrinolysis is impaired in patients with hypertrigly­ceridemia and hypercholesterolemia, which may be due to an increased level of the fibrinolysis inhibitor PAI-1 [68]. Fish oil seems to reduce blood levels of triglycerides and cholesterol; this effect may theoretically increase fibrinolysis by reducing PAI-1 [68]. The fibrinolytic system was very sparsely investigated, with PAI-1 as the most commonly investigated marker. The studies in­cluded in the present review showed no consistent effect on PAI-1 or other markers of fibrinolysis [16, 17, 19-21, 24, 34, 39-41, 44-46, 58, 59, 68]. Only very few studies investigated fibrinolysis, but the studies included in this review indicated that fish oil had no significant effect on fibrinolysis. 


Due to the inhibitory effect of fish oil supplementation demonstrated by platelet aggregometry, some concern might exist on the concomitant use of antithrombotic treatment and fish oil supplementation prior to surgery. Our literature search was not designed to specifically address this question, but several studies were identified investigating the effect of aspirin in combin­ation with fish oil supplementation [69-78]. Any add­itional effect of fish oil was either absent or very discreet. Larson et al found that fish oil might improve the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet function, but without increasing the risk of bleeding [73]. The assumption of no increased clinically significant bleeding risk is corroborated by the findings by Wachira et al [79] and Harris [80], who performed extensive reviews on the effect of fish oil supplementation in combination with antithrombotic medication in various clinical settings, including surgery. In summary, the combination of fish oil and anti­thrombotic therapy including antiplatelet therapy did not cause increased clinically significant bleeding [79, 80]. Thus, the need for discontinuation of fish oil supplementation in combination with antithrombotic treatment prior to surgery is not supported.


The major strength of this review is the systematic and comprehensive literature search performed in two large databases with a comprehensive and transparent presentation of the designs used and results found in the included studies. We included all literature published since 1960; thus, even old studies were not excluded. 
We excluded small studies with fewer than 20 individuals to improve the strength of the results discussed. 


Some limitations have to be considered. Doses and duration of fish oil supplementation varied among 
studies, which might weaken our conclusion. This systematic review did not include a meta-analysis with quantitative estimation of the bleeding risk because only two of the included studies investigating patients undergoing surgery had bleeding as their primary endpoint, and both were retrospective. We cannot exclude reporting bias (e.g. no systematic registration and reporting of bleeding) and thereby the bleeding risk would be underestimated in the present review.


In conclusion, the present systematic review showed no increased bleeding risk during or after surgery in patients exposed to fish oil supplementation. However, fish oil supplementation distinctly reduced primary haemostasis in healthy subjects. Overall, fish oil supplementation had no effect on secondary haemostasis or fibrinolysis. As the biochemical effect of fish oil supplements in healthy subjects was not reflected in an increased bleeding risk during surgery, this systematic review does not support the need for discontinuation of fish oil supplements prior to surgery or other invasive procedures.


Correspondence: Anne-Mette Hvas. E-mail: am.hvas@dadlnet.dk


Accepted: 21 March 2017

Conflicts of interest: Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at www.danmedj.dk


LITERATURE
  1. Knudsen VK. Danskernes forbrug af kosttilskud. E-artikel fra DTU Fødevareinstituttet 2014;(2):1-6. http://orbit.dtu.dk/files/103260099/Danskernes_forbrug_af_kosttilskud.pdf (24 Oct 2016).

  2. Dyerberg J, Bang HO. Haemostatic function and platelet polyunsaturated fatty acids in Eskimos. Lancet 1979;2:433-5.

  3. Ahmed AA, Holub BJ. Alteration and recovery of bleeding times, platelet aggregation and fatty acid composition of individual phospholipids in platelets of human subjects receiving a supplement of cod-liver oil. Lipids 1984;19:617-24.

  4. Thorngren M, Gustafson A. Effects of 11-week increases in dietary eicosa­pentaenoic acid on bleeding time, lipids, and platelet aggregation. Lancet 1981;2:1190-3.

  5. Lorenz R, Spengler U, Fischer S et al. Platelet function, thromboxane formation and blood pressure control during supplementation of the Western diet with cod liver oil. Circulation 1983;67:504-11.

  6. Franzese CJ, Bliden KP, Gesheff MG et al. Relation of fish oil supplemen­tation to markers of atherothrombotic risk in patients with cardiovascular disease not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. Am J Cardiol 2015;115:1204-11.

  7. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): 
a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007;369:
1090-8.

  8. Kepler CK, Huang RC, Meredith D et al. Omega-3 and fish oil supplements do not cause increased bleeding during spinal decompression surgery. 
J Spinal Disord Tech 2012;25:129-32.

  9. Meredith DS, Kepler CK, Huang RC et al. The effect of omega-3 fatty-acid supplements on perioperative bleeding following posterior spinal arthro­desis. Eur Spine J 2012;21:2659-63.

  10. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ 2009;339:b2700.

  11. McEwen BJ, Morel-Kopp MC, Chen W et al. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet function in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease. Semin Thromb Hemost 2013;39:25-32.

  12. Phang M, Scorgie FE, Seldon M et al. Reduction of prothrombin and Factor V levels following supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids is sex de­pend­ent: a randomised controlled study. J Nutr Biochem 2014;25:997-1002.

  13. Phang M, Lincz LF, Garg ML. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementations reduce platelet aggregation and hemostatic markers differentially in men and women. J Nutr 2013;143:457-63.

  14. Phang M, Lincz L, Seldon M et al. Acute supplementation with eicosa­pentaenoic acid reduces platelet microparticle activity in healthy subjects. J Nutr Biochem 2012;23:1128-33.

  15. Phang M, Sinclair AJ, Lincz LF et al. Gender-specific inhibition of platelet aggregation following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2012;22:109-14.

  16. Freese R, Mutanen M. Small effects of linseed oil or fish oil supplemen­tation on postprandial changes in hemostatic factors. Thromb Res 1997;
85:147-52.

  17. Freese R, Mutanen M. Alpha-linolenic acid and marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids differ only slightly in their effects on hemostatic factors in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:591-8.

  18. Prisco D, Filippini M, Francalanci I et al. Effect of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation on fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids and on platelet functions. Metabolism 1995;44:562-9.

  19. Hansen JB, Olsen JO, Wilsgard L et al. Comparative effects of prolonged intake of highly purified fish oils as ethyl ester or triglyceride on lipids, haemostasis and platelet function in normolipaemic men. Eur J Clin Nutr 1993;47:497-507.

  20. Fumeron F, Brigant L, Ollivier V et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids raise low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoprotein 2, and plasminogen-activator inhibitor in healthy young men. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:118-22.

  21. Agren JJ, Vaisanen S, Hanninen O et al. Hemostatic factors and platelet aggregation after a fish-enriched diet or fish oil or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997;57:419-21.

  22. Andrioli G, Carletto A, Guarini P et al. Differential effects of dietary sup­plementation with fish oil or soy lecithin on human platelet adhesion. Thromb Haemost 1999;82:1522-7.

  23. Turini ME, Powell WS, Behr SR et al. Effects of a fish-oil and vegetable-oil formula on aggregation and ethanolamine-containing lysophospholipid generation in activated human platelets and on leukotriene production in stimulated neutrophils. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:717-24.

  24. Schmidt EB, Lervang HH, Varming K et al. Long-term supplementation with n-3 fatty acids, I: effect on blood lipids, haemostasis and blood pressure. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1992;52:221-8.

  25. Bach R, Schmidt U, Jung F et al. Effects of fish oil capsules in two dosages on blood pressure, platelet functions, haemorheological and clinical chemistry parameters in apparently healthy subjects. Ann Nutr Metab 1989;33:359-67.

  26. Simonsen T, Nordoy A, Sjunneskog C et al. The effect of cod liver oil in two populations with low and high intake of dietary fish. Acta Med Scand 1988;223:491-8.

  27. Salonen R, Nikkari T, Seppanen K et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supple­mentation on platelet aggregability and platelet produced thromboxane. Thromb Haemost 1987;57:269-72.

  28. Rogers S, James KS, Butland BK et al. Effects of a fish oil supplement on serum lipids, blood pressure, bleeding time, haemostatic and rheological variables. A double blind randomised controlled trial in healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 1987;63:137-43.

  29. Lervang H, Schmidt EB, Moller J et al. The effect of low-dose supplemen­tation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on some risk markers of coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1993;53:417-23.

  30. Mann NJ, O’Connell SL, Baldwin KM et al. Effects of seal oil and tuna-fish oil on platelet parameters and plasma lipid levels in healthy subjects. Lipids 2010;45:669-81.

  31. Cottin SC, Alsaleh A, Sanders TAB et al. Lack of effect of supplementation with EPA or DHA on platelet-monocyte aggregates and vascular function in healthy men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2016;26:743-51.

  32. Calzada C, Chapuy P, Lagarde M et al. Intake of small amounts of n-3 fatty acids decreases platelet lipid peroxidation in elderly people. Lipids 1999;34(suppl): S311.

  33. Osterud B, Elvevoll E, Barstad H et al. Effect of marine oils supplemen­tation on coagulation and cellular activation in whole blood. Lipids 1995;
30:1111-8.

  34. Hansen JB, Olsen JO, Wilsgard L et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with cod liver oil on monocyte thromboplastin synthesis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. J Intern Med Suppl 1989;731:133-9.

  35. Mortensen JZ, Schmidt EB, Nielsen AH et al. The effect of N-6 and N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on hemostasis, blood lipids and blood pres­sure. Thromb Haemost 1983;50:543-6.

  36. Blonk MC, Bilo HJ, Nauta JJ et al. Dose-response effects of fish-oil sup­plementation in healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:120-7.

  37. McEwen BJ, Morel-Kopp MC, Tofler GH et al. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease. Semin Thromb Hemost 2015;41:315-22.

  38. Vanschoonbeek K, Feijge MA, Paquay M et al. Variable hypocoagulant effect of fish oil intake in humans: modulation of fibrinogen level and thrombin generation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24:1734-40.

  39. Moller JM, Svaneborg N, Lervang HH et al. The acute effect of a single very high dose of N-3 fatty acids on coagulation and fibrinolysis. Thromb Res 1992;67:569-77.

  40. Din JN, Archer RM, Harding SA et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid sup­plementation on endothelial function, endogenous fibrinolysis and platelet activation in male cigarette smokers. Heart 2013;99:168-74.

  41. Prisco D, Paniccia R, Filippini M et al. No changes in PAI-1 levels after four-month n-3 PUFA ethyl ester supplementation in healthy subjects. Thromb Res 1994;76:237-44.

  42. Reis GJ, Boucher TM, Sipperly ME et al. Randomised trial of fish oil for pre­vention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Lancet 1989; 2:177-81.

  43. DeCaterina R, Giannessi D, Mazzone A et al. Vascular prostacyclin is increased in patients ingesting omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids before coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation 1990;82:428-38.

  44. Nilsen DW, Dalaker K, Nordoy A et al. Influence of a concentrated ethyl ester compound of n-3 fatty acids on lipids, platelets and coagulation in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. Thromb Haemost 1991;
66:195-201.

  45. Nilsen DW, Almdahl SM, Svensson B et al. Lipopolysaccharide induced monocyte thromboplastin synthesis and coagulation responses in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery after preoperative supplementation with n-3 fatty acids. Thromb Haemost 1993;70:900-2.

  46. Eritsland J, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I et al. Long-term effects of n-3 poly­unsaturated fatty acids on haemostatic variables and bleeding episodes in patients with coronary artery disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 1995;6:17-22.

  47. Heidarsdottir R, Arnar DO, Skuladottir GV et al. Does treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent atrial fibrillation after open heart surgery? Europace 2010;12:356-63.

  48. Farquharson AL, Metcalf RG, Sanders P et al. Effect of dietary fish oil on atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Am J Cardiol 2011;108:851-6.

  49. Mozaffarian D, Marchioli R, Macchia A et al. Fish oil and postoperative atrial fibrillation: the omega-3 fatty acids for prevention of post-operative atrial fibrillation (OPERA) randomized trial. JAMA 2012;308:2001-11.

  50. Heller AR, Fischer S, Rossel T et al. Impact of n-3 fatty acid supplemented parenteral nutrition on haemostasis patterns after major abdominal sur­gery. Br J Nutr 2002;87 Suppl 1:S95-S101.

  51. Sorensen LS, Thorlacius-Ussing O, Schmidt EB et al. Randomized clinical trial of perioperative omega-3 fatty acid supplements in elective colorectal cancer surgery. Br J Surg 2014;101:33-42.

  52. Swails WS, Bell SJ, Bistrian BR et al. Fish-oil-containing diet and platelet aggregation. Nutrition 1993;9:211-7.

  53. Dehmer GJ, Popma JJ, van den Berg EK et al. Reduction in the rate of early restenosis after coronary angioplasty by a diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids. N Engl J Med 1988;319:733-40.

  54. Wang J, Yu J, Kang W et al. Superiority of a fish oil-enriched emulsion to medium-chain triacylglycerols/long-chain triacylglycerols in gastro­intestinal surgery patients: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrition 2012;28:
623-9.

  55. Roulet M, Frascarolo P, Pilet M et al. Effects of intravenously infused fish oil on platelet fatty acid phospholipid composition and on platelet func­tion in postoperative trauma. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997;21:296-301.

  56. Ernst E, Neumann C, Saradeth T et al. Fish oil and coronary angioplasty. Lancet 1989;2:443.

  57. Singer P, Zolotarski V, Yussim A et al. Renal effects of parenteral fish oil administered to heart-beating organ donors and renal-transplant recipients: a tolerance study. Clin Nutr 2004;23:597-603.

  58. Aiko S, Yoshizumi Y, Tsuwano S et al. The effects of immediate enteral feeding with a formula containing high levels of omega-3 fatty acids in patients after surgery for esophageal cancer. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2005;29:141-7.

  59. Eritsland J, Seljeflot I, Abdelnoor M et al. Long-term influence of omega-3 fatty acids on fibrinolysis, fibrinogen, and serum lipids. Fibrinolysis 1994;
8:120-5.

  60. Mozaffarian D, Wu JHY, De OO et al. Fish oil and post-operative atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:2194-6.

  61. Englyst NA, Grimble RF, Byrne CD. Long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplemen­tation in men increases resistance to activated protein C. Metabolism 2007;56:547-51.

  62. Mackay I, Ford I, Thies F et al. Effect of Omega-3 fatty acid supplemen­tation on markers of platelet and endothelial function in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis 2012;221:514-20.

  63. Moertl D, Berger R, Hammer A et al. Dose-dependent decrease of platelet activation and tissue factor by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with advanced chronic heart failure. Thromb Haemost 2011;106:
457-65.

  64. Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular function in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis 2003;166:85-93.

  65. Brister SJ, Buchanan MR. Effects of linoleic acid and/or marine fish oil supplements on vessel wall thromboresistance in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997;433:275-8.

  66. Yosefy C, Viskoper JR, Varon D et al. Repeated fasting and refeeding with 20:5, n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): a novel approach for rapid fatty acid exchange and its effect on blood pressure, plasma lipids and hemo­stasis. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10(suppl 3):S135-S139.

  67. Salachas A, Papadopoulos C, Sakadamis G et al. Effects of a low-dose fish oil concentrate on angina, exercise tolerance time, serum triglycerides, and platelet function. Angiology 1994;45:1023-31.

  68. Tsuruta K, Ogawa H, Yasue H et al. Effect of purified eicosapentaenoate ethyl ester on fibrinolytic capacity in patients with stable coronary artery disease and lower extremity ischaemia. Coron Artery Dis 1996;7:837-42.

  69. Cohen MG, Rossi JS, Garbarino J et al. Insights into the inhibition of platelet activation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: beyond aspirin and clopidogrel. Thromb Res 2011;128:335-40.

  70. Gajos G, Zalewski J, Rostoff P et al. Reduced thrombin formation and altered fibrin clot properties induced by polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids on top of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing per­cutaneous coronary intervention (OMEGA-PCI clot). Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011;31:1696-702.

  71. Serebruany VL, Miller M, Pokov AN et al. Early impact of prescription omega-3 fatty acids on platelet biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertriglyceridemia. Cardiology 2011;118:187-94.

  72. Tuleta I, Bauriedel G, Hasenbank I et al. Antiplatelet effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with aspirin: a pilot study with whole-blood aggregometry. Thromb Res 2009;124:724-6.

  73. Larson MK, Ashmore JH, Harris KA et al. Effects of omega-3 acid ethyl esters and aspirin, alone and in combination, on platelet function in healthy subjects. Thromb Haemost 2008;100:634-41.

  74. Iacoviello L, Amore C, De Curtis A et al. Modulation of fibrinolytic response to venous occlusion in humans by a combination of low-dose aspirin and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arterioscler Thromb 1992;12:1191-7.

  75. Mueller BA, Talbert RL, Tegeler CH et al. The bleeding time effects of a single dose of aspirin in subjects receiving omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation. J Clin Pharmacol 1991;31:185-90.

  76. Harris WS, Silveira S, Dujovne CA. The combined effects of N-3 fatty acids and aspirin on hemostatic parameters in man. Thromb Res 1990;57:517-26.

  77. Block RC, Abdolahi A, Tu X et al. The effects of aspirin on platelet function and lysophosphatidic acids depend on plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent Fatty Acids 2015;96:17-24.

  78. Mizia-Stec K, Mizia M, Haberka M et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not influence the efficacy of dual antiplatelet therapy in stable angina pectoris patients after percutaneous coronary intervention. Cardiol J 2013;20:478-85.

  79. Wachira JK, Larson MK, Harris WS. N-3 Fatty acids affect haemostasis but do not increase the risk of bleeding: Clinical observations and mechanistic insights. Br J Nutr 2014;111:1652-62.

  80. Harris WS. Expert opinion: omega-3 fatty acids and bleeding-cause for con­cern? Am J Cardiol 2007;99:44C-46C.



Figure 1">





Fejl: Listeneren returnerede flgende meddelelse: 500 Internal Server Error
Advanced search